Generally, toothache indicates a dental disease or disease of surrounding tissues. Tooth pain can vary from recurring weak pain in the teeth while eating (cold, hot, and sweet) to unbearably severe pain in the teeth, that does not finish by itself. The main cause of the toothache is tooth decay. Severe toothache usually indicates the presence of an acute inflammatory process that affects the nerve of the tooth. In the case of severe tooth pain you should visit the dentist as soon as possible.
There are different types of dental pain, and each of these types may be indicate different reasons for its occurrence.
The increased sensitivity of the teeth is a condition where any irritation of the teeth leads to discomfort or to the toothache. There are several major reasons for sensitive teeth: thinning of the layer of tooth enamel (e.g. due to the frequent use of acidic foods, because of the hard toothbrush or after professional whitening of the teeth, etc.), cracks on the enamel, or gum disease. If you have only one tooth which is hypersensitive, most likely the cause is tooth decay.
Tooth decay is a disease of the teeth, which is characterized by the gradual destruction of the tooth starting from the enamel of the tooth to the root. Caries develops in several stages. At the initial stage of the disease the tooth pain occurs rarely, e.g. after the strong stimulation (receiving hot or cold food eating sweet or acidic foods). At later stages the pain arises during each meal and passes only after mouthwash or after the removal of food from the cavities (holes) in the tooth. After a while, the pain in the tooth becomes much stronger than before, not only during the meal, but also at night, and can be periodically renewed. In this case, there is a greater chance of developing of one of the complications: pulpitis or periodontitis.
Pulpitis is an inflammation of the core of the tooth (pulp), which contains blood vessels and nerves. Inflammation that affects the nerve appears with strong toothache that occurs spontaneously, often at night, during sleep, as well as during meals.
Periodontitis is an inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth and the nerves within the tooth. Periodontitis is followed by very strong toothache. Inflammation and swelling of the gums, bad tooth reel or its loss is often observed during the periodontitis.
In some cases, the toothache does not involve direct dental disease and is a result of sinusitis. As a rule, this is indicated by the following symptoms: pain appears in healthy back teeth of the upper jaw, rising of the body temperature, headache, it hurts when touching under the eyes, and nasal congestion.
The most common cause of child’s toothache is tooth decay. If the child has a toothache which is combined with an increase of body temperature, the development of deeper tooth decay is possible: pulpitis (inflammation of the core of the tooth with nerves and blood vessels), periodontitis (inflammation of the nerve of the tooth and surrounding tissues of the tooth). In case of such toothache, try to show your child to the dentist as soon as possible.
Toothache during pregnancy and breast-feeding can bring a lot of troubles. In these cases, the woman is not advisable to recourse to pain medications that can damage the developing fetus or infant. In this connection, it is recommended to visit a dentist as soon as the toothache has appeared first time, and get professional examination and treatment of the tooth using those drugs that are approved for use in the treatment of pregnant and lactating women.